Friday, October 31, 2008

October 31, 2008, Richfield, UT to Flagstaff, AZ

Not far beyond Navajo Bridge Alternate 89 rejoins the main highway and continues on southward through Indian land toward Flagstaff.

This picture was taken as we approached the San Francisco Peaks north of Flagstaff at about 5:30 pm.

We took lodging in Flagstaff for the night and plan to complete our drive to Show Low/Linden on the Mogollon Rim some 150 miles to the east, tomorrow. We are looking forward to seeing our three daughters, Kelly, Rebecca and Ann and their spouses and families after being away for so long!

We stopped at Jacob Lake in the high Kiabab forest near the north rim of the Grand Canyon. This is another favorite spot for us. They serve good food in the restaurant there and they have lots of authentic Navajo, Hopi and Zuni Indian hand crafted articles on sale in their gift shop that are always a treat to look at.

And after you leave Jacob Lake you take the all time favorite road for Terry down off the Kiabab mountains into Marble Canyon and the Vermilion Cliffs north of Navajo Bridge. This is a view of Marble Canyon from the scenic overlook on Alternate 89 east of Jacob Lake.

Our ancester, Jacob Hamblin, for whom Jacob Lake takes its name, rode across these vast distances numerous times on solitary missions to the Navajo, Hopi, Piute and other tribes of southern Utah and northern Arizona. Perhaps that is one reason that this particular part of Arizona has so much meaning. With all the change that continues to take place in so many places of the earth, this area remains timeless, subject only to wind and rain.

As we approached the town of Panguitch, Linda commented on the beautiful cloud formationsin the sky ahead of us. It was a fine day for travel in southern Utah. Great vistas in all directions! Temperatures in the 70s by mid-day. It was hard to believe it was the last day of October.

On this last day of October, 2008 (Halloween) we said goodbye to our costumed hosts at the hotel in Richfield (witches, goblins and such!) and headed off down the highway for all the little southern Utah towns scattered along US 89 between Richfield and Kanab. We have driven this road so very many times over the years since our marriage and heading up to Provo to enter BYU in the Fall of 1962. But, we love every mile, every turn, every crossroad, village and mountain and valley and plateau.
Here is a favorite spot. We don't stop but we enjoy seeing it each time and singing a few lines of The Big Rock Candy Mountain .. "Oh, the peppermint trees and the lemonade springs and the soda water fountain! ..." This would have to be a favorite door to knock on for any kid out trick or treating, its the Big Rock Candy Mountain! Just a short ways down the road after you leave Richfield.

Thursday, October 30, 2008

October 30, 2008, Rexburg, ID to Richfield, UT

We arrived in Rexburg, Idaho at the home of our son Jeffery, wife Kristi and family a little past noon time on Wednesday, Oct 29, completing our 58 day journey across America. It was so good to be with our dear family Idaho family once again.

We found ourselves treated to Kristi's chicken an dumplins, fresh garden salad and hot apple pie just out of the oven at supper time.

We also found ourselves invited with the family to a Halloween live stage production at the University, starring the twins of the family, Adele in one play and then Jacob in another. What a treat to be there for these performances. Both did so well! They both have their father's talent for drama and wonderful stage presence!

I meant to take their pictures while they were in costume but I had left the camera battery in a charger back at the house, so no luck!

After a breakfast of waffles, bacon, OJ, and hot oatmeal we saw all members of the busy family off to work and school (including Kristi, who takes a World Religions class two days a week), and departed on our journey home to Arizona around 11 a.m.

The weather remains very mild for this time of year in Idaho and Utah with temperatures in the high 70s.

We stopped in Springville for an early supper and made contact with Terry's brother Lance at his place of employment, Neways, nearby and had a great visit before continuing on down the road. We stopped for the night in Richfield.

This is Mount Nebo, near Nephi, Utah on our way down the I-15.

Wednesday, October 29, 2008

Day 58, Wed, Oct 29, Jackson Hole, WY to Rexburg, ID

You enter Idaho shortly after clearing the summit of Teton Pass. The road drops down, down, down into the Teton Basin country on the west side of the mountain range. After driving through the small communities of Victor, Driggs and Tetonia the Route 33 turns and heads directly west toward Rexburg.

This is the view looking back toward the Teton mountains from Rt. 33 as it leaves the Teton Basin.

Today, Wednesday, October 29, is the final day of our journey across America. We left Jackson Hole, Wyoming this morning, taking Route 22 west over Teton Pass (8,431 ft.) on our way to Rexburg, Idaho where this trip started on September 2, 2008. This is our 58th day of travel. What a special experience it has been for us!

Linda took this picture as we headed up the Teton Pass from Jackson.

Tuesday, October 28, 2008

Day 57, Tues, Oct 28, Riverton to Jackson Hole, WY

As we entered Jackson Hole after leaving the Park we noticed a number of places where western art was on display. Jackson is obviously a tourist attraction in a major way.

These two pieces caught our eye and we include them as representative of the art inspired by the Grand Teton mountain range, its great variety of wildlife and the native Americans who resided here long before the white man.

Another view of the Teton range, taken from US 26 as we drove through the Park towards Jackson, Wyoming, our destination for the night.
The Tetons are young when compared with most of the other parts of the Rocky Mountain range. Geologists say they emerged through gigantic upheaval in the earth's surface some 9 million years ago. Massive ice glaciers during the most recent ice age helped to carve the peaks and crevices over many thousands of years. There are permenant glaciers on the Grand Teton peak shown here.
Linda noticed mist gathered between the peaks and we surmised that it must be wind blown snow swept up between these jagged, towering pillers of rock. What a sight!

The major peak on this Teton range is the Grand Teton, rising to an altitude of 13, 770 feet. The Snake River winds through the valley on the east side of the mountains.

The creation of the Grand Teton National Park preserves this wonder of nature for ourselves and our posterity to enjoy. Wild game roam free here, including deer, bear, elk, antelope, moose, buffalo, wolves, the bald eagle and mountain lion to name a few.

As we gained elevation, crossing the Continental Divide and drew nearer to the Grand Teton National Park the terrain changed dramatically. We began to see the majestic peaks of the Teton mountain range off to the south and west. Each mile brought a differing and facinating view. We stopped at all the scenic overlooks as we entered the Park and continued south toward Jackson, taking picture after picture.

As you can see the day was bright and clear, and although we were at well over 9,000 feet the temperatures were in the 60s as the day wore on. It was a beautiful day!

Monday, October 27, 2008

Day 56, Monday, Oct 27, Hot Springs, SD to Riverton, WY

Here in the midst of the high desert of central Wyoming is the Boysen Reservoir, located near the upper waters of the Bighorn River that flows northward through Wyoming to the Yellowstone River in Montana.

The Boysen Reservoir is not far from Riverton, Wyoming where we found lodging for the night.

Tomorrow we hope to drive through the Grand Teton National Park before making our way, at last, to Rexburg, Idaho, our starting place for this wonderful trip which began 56 days ago on September 2nd. What an experience!
We saw numerous antalope as we drove across Wyoming's vast open range lands. Each time we stopped and attempted to get a picture they were quick to turn and run effortlessly away. They are very elusive animals.

Linda spotted this group near the highway as we neared the outskirts of Shoshoni, Wyoming on Route 26.

By the time I had exited the car and walked toward them with my camera they were on the move.
This is the view of the widening expanse of the eastern plains of Wyoming as we began our descent down US 18 from the Black Hills of southwestern South Dakota.

We very much enjoyed our two days in the Black Hills and talk of going back at some future time.

Sunday, October 26, 2008

Day 55, Sunday, Oct 26, Mount Rushmore, SD

En route to Mount Rushmore from Hot Springs, SD, you pass through Custer State Park where the buffalo still roam free and where you will also see herds of antalope, deer, elk and other animals in the wild.
We took this picture on our way to visit Mt. Rushmore this morning. We saw much to enjoy during our brief time here in South Dakota's Black Hills.

This photo was taken from what they call the Grand View Terrace, the main viewing area for visitors to Mount Rushmore.

It was Borglum's intention that the granite portraits of Washington, Jefferson, Roosevelt and Lincoln represent the birth, growth, development and preservation of our country.

Three million visitors come to Mount Rushmore each year from all parts of the world.
A foot trail allows the visitor to come this close to the monument. Despite the intense cold, below 30 degrees, numerous persons, old and young, were venturing along the path in order to get a closer look at this majestic scene.

We awoke to clear sky's but very cold temperatures, 32 degrees and below, and strong icy wind.

We prepared for attendance at the 10 a.m. Sacrament meeting at the local Branch, here in Hot Springs, but found the building locked and no one about on our arrival (Perhaps it was their Stake Conference - we didn't know). So, we went back to the hotel and changed to more suitable clothing for a visit to Mount Rushmore.

This is our first picture upon arrival at the Mount Rushmore National Memorial. It is quite a sight to see; realizing that it has been hewn out of solid granite by human hands.

Day 54, Saturday, Oct 25, Hot Springs, SD

This was the sunset on Saturday, as viewed from our hotel window. Tomorrow we will attend Sacrament meeting at 10 a.m. at the Hot Springs Branch, located just a few blocks from our hotel. We will then drive to the Mount Rushmore National Memorial.

We have a room in this hotel in Hot Springs, South Dakota, in the famous Black Hill country and about 50 miles south of objective: Mount Rushmore.

We have stayed at the hotel to rest up and reorganize ourselves, do some laundry and get ready for the last leg of our journey back to Rexburg and then down to Arizona.

We plan to be in Rexburg on Wednesday and at Ann & Steve's home in Linden by Saturday, Nov 1.

Friday, October 24, 2008

Day 53, Friday, Oct 24, O'Neill, NE to Hot Springs, SD

We ended our day at Hot Springs, South Dakota, about 50 miles from Mount Rushmore.

But, we couldn't leave Nebraska without stopping here outside the town of Chadron and taking a picture of this windmill and weatherbeaten ranch building, so typical of the landscape of northwestern Nebraska.

Just before entering Valentine, Nebraska, westbound on US 20, you cross the Niobrara River, a tributary of the Missouri and designated as a "National Scenic River."

It was interesting to read about this bridge, designed by Russian immigrant Josef Sorkin. It is an arched cantilever truss bridge, connected in the center by a single pin; the only bridge of its kind in the United States. It was pronounced the "Most beautiful steel bridge of 1932." (Just trying to keep you all abreast of important historical facts).

This is 'cheezy' we know, but we had to stop and take a picture of "Big John" in the small town of Ainsworth, Nebraska.

Friday, as we resumed our travels westward on US 20 from O'Neill, Nebraska, we could see the evidence of the heavy rain that has fallen in this part of the Midwest over the past several days. Many of the huge rolled bales of hay are still in rain drenched and flooded fields as you can see in this picture taken west of O'Neill, looking off to the south.

Thursday, October 23, 2008

Day 52, Thurs, Oct 23, Omaha to O'Neill, NE

This is the main street running through the city of Norfolk, Nebraska. It had such a look of downtown Mesa, Arizona that we had to take a picture!

We had intended to reach Valentine, Nebraska before finding lodging for the night, but by the time we reached O'Neill on US 275, visibility was diminishing due to the rain and fog and we decided to take a room at the local Holiday Inn.

O'Neill has a strong Irish influence. General John O'Neill, founder of the city, conceived the idea of bringing Irish immigrants to the farmlands of the Midwest while he was a prisoner in Burlington, Vermont in 1870. He spent two years traveling through the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri and Nebraska, encouraging the Irish to re-settle in O'Neill. He must have been fairly successful. On Saint Patrick's Day in 1969, Nebraska's governor officially proclaimed O'Neill "The Irish Capitol of Nebraska." The city now begins each Patrick's Day celebration by painting the world's largest shamrock in the middle of a downtown intersection. (Now, there's some trivia for you).

It snowed here yesterday and some snow was still on the ground, but the streets and roads were clear, though very wet, due to continuing rain. When we checked in at the hotel the temperature had dropped to 39 degrees. We hope the sky's will clear tomorrow!

This beautiful little church (a congregation of the Community of Christ) sits just off highway 275 in the small town of Clearwater, Nebraska.
Linda said, "Stop! We have to get a picture of this church and those two beautiful trees with their red leaves!"
Trees with red leaves have been a high priority on this trip. So have these village church buildings. They indicate the presence of faith in God in the lives of the common people of this country.
As we left Omaha at about 11 a.m. the sky was filled with rain-laden clouds. Temperatures were in the low 50s. Driving north on US 75 and then northwest on US 275 the temperature continued to drop and we were soon enveloped in rain, increasing mist and fog. This did not diminish our enjoyment of what we could see about us in this mid-west landscape with its contour farming on all the hills; miles of feed lots and the small towns with their grain elevators and tractor auction yards.

Just about a perfect day for Linda. No sun in her eyes today!
We departed Omaha this morning. Our destination is Mount Rushmore in southwestern South Dakota, about 570 miles away. we stayed over in Omaha an extra day due to the heavy rain and wind of yesterday.

Before heading off toward the northwest we drove down Interstate 680 where it crosses the Missouri River. this is called the Mormon Bridge (we didn't get our camera in play until we were past the sign).

This is the location on the river across from the Winter Quarters settlement. It was here that the Saints built one of three ferry's which they used to cross the river; there being no bridged crossings of this great river in those days.

Wednesday, October 22, 2008

Day 51, Wed, Oct 22, Omaha, NE

This is a bronze statue outside the entrance to the Mormon Trail Information Center, across from the Omaha Temple. It depicts the use of handcarts by some companies of Mormon pioneers who traveled in this manner from Omaha to the Salt Lake Valley. It is is beautiful piece of work but we couldn't help but contrast it to the strength, energy and detail so evident in the wagon train pieces created by Ed Fraughton for the downtown "Spirit of Nebraska Wilderness & Pioneer Courage Park" that we were privilaged to visit yesterday.

We were graciously received by the Sister missionaries and the Senior couple assigned to the Center on our arrival. One of the missionaries, Sister Lewis from Florida, guided us through the wonderful visual presentation that is provided in this Center, telling so effectively of the events and circumstances surrounding Saints experiences in Winter Quarters. We were deeply impressed. We have those in our ancestry that were part of this pioneer experience. We should not forget their devotion and their sacrifice.

This is a view from the pioneer cemetary tooking towards the Temple. The grounds are adorned with wonderfully large hardwood and evergreen trees.

The Winter Quarters settlement, consisting of some 500 log cabins and sod huts, was on fairly level, open ground down the hill to the East from this cemetary location and extending out to the west bank of the Missouri River. This was Potowatami Indian land granted by the federal government and the Indian tribes as a temporary resting place for the Saints before they continued their western migration.

On the bronze memorial listing the names of those buried here, we noticed the name of Mary C. Burnham 19 yrs, and 9 month child Mary Lowery Burnham.

You see from the ages that so very many were children.

Because of the wind and rain and because of such a beautiful, spacious and comfortable room at the Holiday Inn just 6 miles from the Temple, we elected to stay another day in Omaha.

Despite the continuing cold wind and rain, we went back over to the Mormon Trail Information Center across from Temple so we could complete the presentation the Sister missionaries started to share with us yesterday. Before going in to the information center we walked over to the Pioneer Cemetary located on the Temple grounds. This cemetary is the burial place of many of those who died while at Winter Quarters in 1846-47. Many of these were children who could not survive the harshness of the winter and the diseases that swept the encampment.

This monument by noted LDS sculptor Arvard Fairbanks is on the cemetary grounds, directly north of the Temple. It depicts a pioneer father and mother standing over the grave where they have just laid their child to rest.

Tuesday, October 21, 2008

Day 50, Tues, Oct 21, Maryville, MO to Omaha, NE

Finding the sculptures downtown was easy, but finding the Omaha Temple was much harder, dut to the fact that I wrote the address down incorrectly. But we finally arrived there. This is the very site of Winter Quarters and the burial ground of so many that died there in the bitter winter of 1846-47.
We enjoyed meeting the Sister Missionaries at the Information Center next to the Temple and viewing a wonderful film of the pioneer period.
Linda was not able to go, due to her leg being so painful after our full day, but with her encouragement I attended a 7:30 pm session and enjoyed it so much. This is a beautiful, small temple much like the one in Snowflake, Arizona.

I've milked a few of these old "Bessy's" in my younger days.

This one looks just like our old milk cow "Jersey."

Despite the cold and the wind and pain in her knee, Linda kept walking from one piece to another. She couldn't keep back the tears.

Another view of the mule drawn wagon that forms a center piece of the present wagon train now in place at the park. So true in every way, even down to the grease bucket hanging between the rear wheels.

One picture of any of these subjects cannot begin to capture to fullness of what is being portrayed. You must walk about and look from all sides. The authenticity of detail and the energy so evident in each and every part is so remarkable!

What great work! How splendid and worthwhile and meaningful it is to have captured the time, place and events of our pioneer past in this enduring way. It is a work of great integrity.

We had been privilaged to see some of these pieces during their creation in clay by the artist at his studio in South Jordan, Utah. To see them here in their final full display in bronze was so special!

These pieces were commissioned by an Omaha business man. The wagon train and related bronzes are all part of the First National Spirit of Nebraska Wilderness and Pioneer Park at 14th Street and Capitol.

The highlight of the day came as we arrived in downtown Omaha where the first portions of a pioneer wagon train, all in greater than life size bronze are on display; the work of sculptor Edward J. Fraughton of Utah. Ed Fraughton is the father of our dear daughter in law, Kristi. His work is of such immense significance and represents such meaning that as we got out of the car and stood there in the cold and the wind, Linda began to cry. She knows this man and she knows something of the remarkable skill, labor and dedication he has invested to create such a work. It is the largest work in bronze existing anywhere, with more yet to come before it is completed. It covers an entire city block. Hours would be needed to properly view and appreciate it all in its entirety.

This establishment is in one of the small farming villages we passed through after leaving Maryville, Missouri this morning. We had to turn around and go back and take of picture of the sign over the door for Steve Williams and any of you others who have lived for a time in the Southern or midwestern states. (This is real down-home, rural America!) "Kiss My Grits."

Today, we awoke to falling temperatures, a cold wind and threat of rain. Just about the perfect day as far as Linda is concerned.

We headed out from Maryville, Missouri, west and then north on I-29 for Council Bluffs and Omaha, some 80 miles away. The countryside continued to look much as we have traveled through since leaving the Mississippi, but more to cultivated fields of corn and other crops and less of woodland.

This picture was taken just north of Maryville on US 136 going west toward the Missouri River.

Monday, October 20, 2008

Day 49, Mon, Oct 20, Keokuk, IA to Maryville, MO

We don't know much about the city of Maryville, Missouri where we have stopped for the night, but as we drove through the old downtown area we stopped to take this picture of the County Court House.

We found suitable lodging at a Comfort Inn on the south end of town, not in the direction we need to go, but not that far out of our way. It is remarkable, really, how we have been blessed to find clean and comfortable places to stay, day after day, at reasonable rates, when we have no reservations ahead of time or any real assurance of exactly where we will be. Most people wouldn't be conducting themselves this way but it has worked remarkably well for us now, in our 49th day of travel.

What a truly unforgetable experience!

On the eastern outskirts of Maryville, MO we found these wind machines scattered along the hillsides, close to our highway. So, we turned onto a farm road and drove up quite close to one of them and took this rather poor picture. Because of the wind they were all in operation. It was rather awsome to stand just beneath one of these machines as its huge blades are turning. While they seem to turn slowly they stir the air with a most unusual sound! I can't quite describe it, but it is a very powerful and strange feeling to be this close to one of them. We need more of these alternatives to our dependence upon fossil fuels for our energy. Harnessing the wind! It is exciting!

US 136 has been our friend for so many miles across Indiana and Illinois that we continued to use it as our highway toward the Missouri River as we resumed our journey this morning from the west banks of the Mississippi at Keokuk, Iowa.

If you look at the map you see that Keokuk is at the extreme southeast border of Iowa, just above Missouri and just across the river from Illinois. US. 136 traverses Missouri from east to west, just below the Iowa border.

This picture, taken as we proceeded west on US 136, is typical of much of the terrain we passed through today in northern Missouri. We were surprised to find it to be quite hilly, with lots of trees, broken by small farms and pasture lands; not the broad, flat expanses of farms and fields we had expected.

This is the Keokuk (Iowa) Branch meeting house where we attended Sacrament meeting yesterday.

We took this picture before departing from Keokuk this morning on our way toward Omaha and Council Bluffs (Winters Quarters).

Sunday, October 19, 2008

Day 48, Sun, Oct 19, Keokuk, IA & Carthage, IL

As most of you are well aware, this is the jail in Carthage were Joseph and his brother Hyrum, and fellow church leaders John Taylor and Willard Richards were being held on bogus charges of treason on June 27, 1844 when a mob with painted faces stormed the building, forcing their way up the stairs and with guns blazing, shot through the door, killing Hyrum instantly. Bursting the door open they severly wounded John Taylor and killed Joseph with gunfire from both within and without the building. He fell from the window to the yard, his body landing near the well, mortally wounded. The attackers then fled. Willard Richards was not hit. John Taylor survived his wounds and would live to be the 3rd prophet and president of the Church in this dispensation. He and Willard Richards were witnesses to the martyrdom of the Prophet.

As John Taylor stated in the 135 Section of the Doctrine & Covenants, verse 3: "He (Joseph Smith) lived great, and he died great in the eyes of God and his people; and like most of the Lord's anointed in ancient times, has sealed his mission and his works with his own blood: and so has his brother Hyrum. In life they were not divided, and in death they were not separated!"

Before touring the Jail we first viewed a fine film produced by the Church regarding the final days in the life of Joseph Smith, based on first person accounts of those who were his contemporaries both in and out of the Church. Then were were escorted on a tour of the Jail by a Senior Missionary, a Sister Evans, who serves at the Carthage Jail Visitor's Center with her husband. Elder and Sister Evans are from Salt Lake City, Utah, serving a 6-month mission. She gave a most effective presentation. As with so many other Church historic sites, this is sacred ground, particularly so when, in your heart there beats a testimony of the truthfulness of the divine mission and calling of Joseph Smith and the reality of the Restoration.

The Chapman's and the Tipton's standing before the statues of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, waiting for the doors to open at the Carthage Jail Visitor's Center.
Brother Tipton said he seems to remember us from our days in the Red Mountain Stake. We resided in the Princess Park Ward and they lived in the Hermosa Vista Ward at the time (early to mid-90's).
At 12 noon we drove the 12 miles over to Carthage, east of the river in Illinois. On our arrival at the Carthage Jail and Visitor's Information Center maintained by the Church we were pleased meet a couple from Mesa who were also traveling: Gary and Janet Tipton. We learned that their son Wesley Scott (Wes) Tipton was the Tempe police officer so greviously wounded in a gun battle some 8 years ago. He suffered 7 bullet wounds at point blank range. You may recall how, despite his severe injury he was able to return fire on his attacker and prevent a further assault upon a woman in the Tempe shopping center parking lot where the confrontation took place. We remembered knowing about this shooting at the time of its occurance. It was quite compelling to stand there at this sacred site of the maryterdom of the Prophet Joseph and his brother Hyrum and listen to brother and sister Tipton tell about the miracle of their son's survival and that he is in good health and doing well. Wes Tipton is, in fact, in Show Low, Arizona. He is a Real Estate agent. In fact he and his wife and family live in Linden! Interesting, uh?

This is the walkway leading from the visitor parking area to the Carthage Jail and Visitor's Center. You can see the bronze statue of Joseph and Hyrum. There has been much of improvement and beautification of the property since we were here some 24 years ago.

Keokuk, Iowa has a National Military Cemetary, one of only 12 such so designated by the U.S. Congress. We spent some time driving through its beautifully cared for grounds this morning. We were vividly reminded of the sacrifice made by so very many to defend our country and maintain our freedoms. Those who have died in defense of country in all branch's of military service are buried here, some of them in unmarked graves.

It is Sunday. We have been staying at a hotel in Keokuk, Iowa, just across the Mississippi River from Nauvoo. We decided that we would attend the local LDS Keokuk Branch Sacrament meeting instead of going over to Nauvoo. A young family named Smith from Minnesota that have been on a school break and staying at our hotel also attended with us. Both his and her parents live in Gilbert. Her maiden name is Mix. They have a boy and girl, really a nice young family.
We didn't get their picture or a picture of the Branch meeting house, but it is a very nice building and a large Branch that is the size of a small Ward. We very much enjoyed meeting and worshiping with them and the blessing of being able to partake of the Sacrament and renew our Covenants. What a blessing it is to travel throughout this dear country of ours and to find the Church thriving and strong in every place we go.
Because the church historic sites do not open for visitors until 12:30 pm on Sundays it gave us an opportunity to visit several places of interest in Keokuk before driving due east across the river to Carthage, IL where the Carthage Jail is located.
This is one of several older mansions that are found along Grand Avenue on the bluff overlooking the river in the city of Keokuk (The city is named after an Indian chief).